The new law on occupational therapy for alcoholism 2020
Alcohol addiction is, frankly, fatal. Gradually destructive personality, invariably leading to its degradation. In its treatment, a variety of techniques are used, based both on the features of communication with the patient, and on the creation of specific environmental conditions. At the same time, it is customary to reinforce methods of individual and group psychotherapy, hypnosis and coding, as well as gestalt therapy based on the theory of introspection, art treatment, and occupational therapy.
It was the State Duma that recalled the latter when members of the Samara Legislative Assembly took the initiative at the legislative level to fix the punishment of compulsory work for revealing the facts of being drunk in public places. This is a violation of Article 20 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, and the Samara residents want to be awarded up to 50 hours of labor duty for him now.
Recall that now they are arrested for 15 days or a fine of 500-1500 rubles, depending on the severity of the circumstances determined by the court.
The essence of the idea of returning to occupational therapy
The authors of this initiative insist that we are talking about affordable measures to re-educate and correct a person. Indeed, occupational therapy, as a socio-medical technique, has long established itself as a very effective technique. If it succeeds in promoting a bill on this topic at the state level, this will contribute to the implementation of the Concept of the state program on the prevention of alcoholism and the reduction of abuse, which was developed until 2020, inclusive.
Bill No. 608084-7: “On Amending Article 20.21 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation”:
Alcoholism is going to "crush" at once in several directions:
- tightening control over the production of alcoholic beverages;
- using means of propaganda against alcoholism, including social advertising, various subprograms, local initiatives, and the involvement of religious and public organizations;
- increasing the minimum permitted age of sale;
- compulsory medical examination, psychotherapy, medical treatment and other means of dealing with already existing cases of drunkenness;
- reforming the institutions of addiction care;
- the creation of alternatives to drinking alcohol in leisure, entertainment, sports;
- eradication of the facts of illegal import and production of alcohol-containing products.
And now, since 2020, occupational therapy is likely to join them.
The concept of occupational therapy
In Soviet times, there was the practice of LTP - medical and labor dispensaries, in which drug addicts were taken, including alcoholics, where forced labor became the main method of their treatment and re-education. These were closed institutions, to which they were sent by a court decision for a period of six months or two years.
With the collapse of the Union of LTPs on the territory of Russia, formations that violated freedoms and human rights were abolished (such institutions remained only in Turkmenistan, Belarus and in the unrecognized Transnistria).
Recently, however, the Federal Drug Control Service has come forward with an initiative to return to this practice. And this opinion is supported by 81% of respondents, according to a 2015 Levada Center survey.
The history of occupational therapy, as one of the types of social assistance and treatment for drug addiction
As early as the 16th century, the first institutions appeared on the territory of Europe on charitable or penitentiary bases, the tasks of which were to attach to work poor, drunken and petty criminals in order to provide people with human conditions of existence and to maximize their recovery and re-education.
It is interesting that, along with other European reforms in Russia, Peter the Great established their analogues - the so-called "restraining houses", designed to load on a regular basis the work of those who practice "restless and indecent living." Prior to this, all care for such elements of society was transferred to monasteries.
Subsequently, many Russian monarchs supported and developed this initiative. By the way, you probably did not know that the famous Moscow Sailor's Silence prison arose in 1870 precisely from the unification of the Moscow workhouse and a straitjacket for "violent sloths." In general, at the end of the 19th century, industrious houses on the territory of tsarist Russia grew by leaps and bounds.
In Soviet times, large-scale anti-alcohol campaigns were carried out, they engaged in serious propaganda of a sober lifestyle, raised prices, tightened the standards for the production and trade in alcoholic beverages, and the already mentioned LTPs and detoxification agents were created - milder forms of isolation.
In the latter, the person was kept until he came to his senses, if necessary, he was provided with medical assistance, a personality was established, and if the violation was malicious or aggravating, then they could appoint the next 15 days in labor for the benefit of society. Remember the Gaida "Operation" Y. "Companions" with the legendary: "We must, Fedya. We must."? That's the same ...
How are you planning to fight alcoholism in 2020?
Of course, following the example of Peter the Great, who ordered in 1714 to cast the medal “For drunkenness” from cast iron, weighing 6.8 kg, and forcibly hang it for a week on the offender’s neck, they will not act. They will simply return the practice of detoxification, which was abolished back in 2011, hanging their duties on poor BSPs and paramedic points.
It will be there that they will be "taken" with the subsequent registration of all "caught" and determination for forced community service. Not to be confused with the correctional labor applied to convicts under the Criminal Code in places not so remote and with mandatory labor - in fact, by replacing criminal punishment with free labor for the benefit of society.
The composition of such work may vary from season to season, the needs of a particular region, and other features. For example, garbage or snow cleaning, painting fences and other structures, assistance in the construction of public facilities at unskilled classes, etc.
The main thing that is charged here is the regularity of the execution of the punishment, up to its completion, the tightening of preventive measures in the event of repeated relapses, the execution of not too responsible and not requiring any special knowledge or skills, as well as respect for human rights, regardless of the circumstances.